The law regarding the rights of citizens.
A civil case is where one person sues another person, or an organisation or limited company. The object of the case is usually compensation.
This is to be distinguished from a criminal case, which is where the police bring charges against an individual with the intention of having him/them punished by the Court for a crime they have committed. In this sort of case, the police act on behalf of the public, and bring the case on behalf of society in general.